Offender Treatment Programs
The Program Services Unit oversees the delivery of quality programs that address offender needs in an effort to prepare offenders for reentry and ultimately reduce recidivism. The Program Services unit coordinates delivery of education, vocational training, cognitive restructuring, and substance abuse programming.
Educational opportunities are available at all levels of security and offer Literacy for offenders who are assessed with an overall accomplishment below the sixth grade level; Adult Basic Education for those who indicate an overall accomplishment between the sixth and ninth grade levels; and General Educational Development to prepare offenders indicating an overall accomplishment at or above the ninth grade level with no high school diploma. A total of 1,670 GED certificates were obtained by offenders in FY2014.
Substance abuse treatment programs utilize a cognitive behavioral modality of delivery to address addiction and abuse. Treatment programs are from four to twelve months in duration depending on the individualized needs of the offender. Participation data is collected and analyzed to ensure the effectiveness of treatment programming. Participants totaled 1,993 in treatment with 931 successfully completing in FY2014.
Cognitive Restructuring programs address criminal thought processes and are designed to instill values and promote positive changes in behavior. These programs are available at most facilities and offer participants the opportunity to scrutinize their behavior patterns through identifying thinking errors and triggers to criminal behavior.
Several forms of programming is offered to offenders at all facilities within the agency. The table below summarizes program participation.
FY2014 Program Participation
|Program ||Participation |
|Substance Abuse Treatment ||1,993 |
|Thinking for a Change ||2,178 |
|Literacy ||1,802 |
|Adult Basic Education ||2,151 |
|General Equivalency Diploma ||2,263 |
|CIMC Life Skills ||2,413 |
|Faith and Character Community ||446 |
Probation and Parole
Probation revocations accounted for 26% of FY2014 receptions. Of the offenders who were received on a probation revocation, 56% were received into prison without a new case and 44% were received with a new case. Some probation violators may have been probationers supervised by an agency other than the ODOC. Parole violators constituted .8% of all FY2014 receptions.
A 2008 Urban Institute Report on Offender Reentry Health has documented the poor health status of offenders entering prisons as compared with the general population. Offender populations are aging due to longer prison sentences. This circumstance is often made worse by offender’s tendency for unhealthy lifestyles, coupled with a history of substance abuse or other chronic medical conditions.
The incarcerated offender population 50 years and older in ODOC has grown from 85 in 1980 to over 5,120 in FY2014.
- ODOC health care expenditures demonstrate consistent growth, reflecting the national trend.
- Factors increasing the cost of offender health care include: Increased offender population, increased average age of offenders, market-driven increases in salaries and benefits of health care personnel, and increased medication costs of non-ODOC physician and hospital services.
Less tangible factors affecting costs include: Improved overall quality of care, compliance with community standards of care, and the evolution of medical technology and medication costs. The chart below illustrates ODOC health care expenditures have increased from $60,800,591 in FY2005 to over $84,000,000 in FY2014.
Offender Population 50 Years of Age and Older
Data for 1980 and 1994 from Wheeler, et al., 1995. Data for 2010-present are generated using end-of-fiscal year data and only exclude offenders on escapee status.
|Year||50 and Older|
Offender Health Care Expenditures
For FY2014 Offender Health Care Expenditures includes ODOC housed offenders and contract beds.
Offender Health Care Expenditures - Daily
|Fiscal Year||Daily Expenditure|
Offenders with mental health problems continue to be increasingly overrepresented in the ODOC populations compared to the community. No offenders were excluded from this analysis. Based on incarcerated population on June 30, 2014.
|FY 2014 Prison Population||Number||Percentage|
History or current symptoms of a mental illness:
Current symptoms of a mental illness:
Current serious developmental or cognitive disability:
FY2006 through FY2014 Changed in Psychotropic Medication Distribution
From FY2006 through FY 2014, the number of offenders on psychotropic medications increased from 4,072 to 6,343, a 56% increase.
Data comes from Mental Health Services and are based on end of the fiscal year population counts of offenders receiving psychotropic medication, both at private and public facilities. During the time frame, the percentage of offenders on these medications increased by 56%, while the general population increased by 15%. General population includes offenders housed in all locations, with the exception of those supervised by GPS/EMP technology, Interstate Compact - OUT and offenders on escapee status.
|Fiscal Year||Number of Offenders on Psychotropic Medications|
The ODOC and the Oklahoma Department of Mental Health and Substance Abuse Services (ODMHSAS) collaborative Mental Health Reentry Program transitions incarcerated offenders with serious mental illness into appropriate community-based mental health services in the community. Reentry Intensive Care Coordination Teams (RICCTs) are under ODMHSAS contracts to be responsible for engaging with the offender with serious mental illness prior to discharge and then working with them in the community until they are fully participating in the appropriate community-based mental health and substance abuse services.
The table below summarizes the FY2013 and FY2014 average monthly number of mental health services.
|Mental Health Services Activities||Services for FY2013||Services for FY2014|
|Offenders in Group Sessions||1,158||851|
|Number of Group Sessions||230||176|
|Number of Individual Therapy Sessions||3,335||2,951|
|Offenders Seen for Psychotropic Medication Management||2,829||2,689|
Number of Offenders Served Fiscal Year
|Integrated Service Discharge Managers||256||313|
|Reentry Intensive Care Coordination Teams||207||237|
|Enhanced Integrated Co-Occurring Treatment Services||225||276|
An outcome analysis of the program that was performed by ODMHSAS showed continued positive results. Outcomes of offenders served during FY2014 were compared with a baseline group comprised of similar individuals.
Collaborative Mental Health Reentry Program (2014)
The baseline comparison group was comprised of similar individuals prior to program implementation (2006)
|Outpatient Service Utilization||55.1%||78.5%|
|Rate of Engagement in Community Based Services||11.7%||64.3%|
|Offenders Engaged in Medicaid 90 Days Post Release||14.5%||42.1%|
|Offenders Returning to Prison within 36 Months||42.3%||24.6%|
Oklahoma has consistently ranked first in the rate of female incarceration nationally, and projections for the female offender population through FY2014 indicate that ranking will continue. The steady, small increases in female offender numbers reflect reception and release patterns that have stayed
consistent in recent years. The table on the right illustrates the increasing number of female offenders.
FY05-FY06 numbers come from the closest population analysis report to the end of the fiscal year. These numbers include all ODOC facilities, contract locations, and incarcerated offenders supervised by electronic monitoring, but exclude offenders that are temporarily on the OUT count status (e.g., hospital, court, jail). FY07-present generated from the Offender Management System (OMS) and include all ODOC facilities, contract locations, incarcerated offenders supervised by electronic monitoring,
|Fiscal Year||Female||Percent Increase|
The Hispanic offender population in Oklahoma prisons is the fastest growing racial/ethnic population in the system. While the numbers are not a large proportion of the total offender population at this time, their growth and rate of increase pose definite issues for effective and efficient management of department institutions.
For 2011, the U.S. Census Bureau estimates the Hispanic population in Oklahoma to be 8.9% of the total population. The ODOC Hispanic offender population is 7.6% of the ODOC incarcerated population.
The table below illustrates the increasing number of Hispanic offenders.
Numbers generated from the Offender Management System (OMS) and include all ODOC facilities, contract locations, and incarcerated offenders under probation and parole supervision (i.e., GPS/EMP), as well as offender that are temporarily on the OUT count status (e.g., hospital, court, jail).
|Fiscal Year||Hispanics||Percent Increase|
National Funding and Expenditure Trends
National Association of State Budget Officers, State Expenditure Report (Fiscal 2012-2014)
In fiscal 2013, corrections spending represented 3.2% of total state spending and 6.9% of general fund spending. General fund dollars are the primary source for state corrections and account for $47.4 billion, or 88.9% of all fiscal 2013 state corrections spending. State funds (general funds and other state funds combined, but excluding bonds) accounted for 97.7% of total state corrections spending in fiscal 2013. Federal funds accounted for 1.4% and bonds accounted for 1.0%. Federal
funds for corrections declined by 25.5% in fiscal year 2013, as American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) funds expired.
State spending on corrections in fiscal 2014 is estimated to total $55.5 billion, a 4.0% increase from fiscal year 2013. State funds are estimated to increase by 4.0% while federal funds are estimated to increase by 4.3%. The slight increase in the overall growth rate is partly due to recent efforts states have taken to control corrections spending. State spending for corrections totaled $53.3 billion in fiscal 2013, compared to $53.1 billion in fiscal 2012, a 0.5% increase. Over the past several years, states have begun targeting criminal justice reforms to address the cost drivers of corrections expenditures.
The same report also documented expenditures for Oklahoma in fiscal 2013. Oklahoma corrections expenditures were 2.6% of total state spending and 6.6% of total state general fund spending. According to the report, the state’s corrections expenditures totaled $563 million in fiscal 2013.
The state general fund is the dominant source of the state’s corrections spending for fiscal 2013, providing 81.5%, of total monies spent in corrections. This percentage is considerably lower than the national average of general fund support reported for the same year 88.9%.
Fiscal 2013 state general fund and other state funds made up 99.6% of total corrections spending. This percentage for Oklahoma was higher than the national average of 97.6%.
In contrast, fiscal 2013 federal funds accounted for only 0.4% of the total monies spent in corrections. This level of federal funds was below the national average 1.4% reported for the same fiscal year.*
Oklahoma’s high costs associated with a high rate of per capita incarceration are reflected in the percentage of general revenue fund expenditures.
Although Oklahoma corrections takes a larger share of general revenue funds, the state has one of
the lowest incarceration per diem rates, compared to surrounding states.
Corrections as Percentage of Total General Fund Expenditures, FY2014
Arkansas is 8.2 percent
Colorado is 8.0 percent
Missouri is 7.2 percent
Oklahoma is 6.7 percent
Texas is 6.6 percent
Kansas is 5.8 percent
New Mexico is 4.6% percent
Source: National Association of State Budget Officers: State Expenditure Report (Fiscal Year 2012-
Comprehensive Annual Financial Report Fiscal Year Ended June 30, 2013
|Percent change prior year||.8 percent||-|
|Total State Appropriation||$6,828,000,000||$7,083,000,000|
The following provides a breakdown of FY2014 actual expenditures by expenditure type for the ODOC.
Salaries and Benefits $260,161,660
Private Prison and Contracts $157,923,332
Maint/Repairs and Bldg. Const. $9,992,824
Debt Service $5,294,637
Other Expenditures include - Over 1 Million: Merchandise for Resale (OCI and Agri-Services); Outside Medical Care; Offender Pay; Rent Expense; Production, Safety and Security; Shop Expense; General Operating Expenses Under 1 Million: Travel Agency Direct Payments; Incentive Payments; Travel reimbursements; Lease Purchasing; Library Equipment-Resources; Land; Livestock and Poultry; Employee reimbursements (Non-Travel); Payments to Local Government; Reimbursement
Restitution to Victims
The following provides a breakdown of restitution fees paid to victims since Fiscal Year 2005.
|Fiscal Year||Restitution Paid to Victims|
FY2014 Legislative Summary
An Act relating to prisons and reformatories; amending 57 O.S. 2011, Section 561.1, as amended by Section 256, Chapter 304, O.S.L. 2012 (57 O.S. Supp. 2013, Section 561.1), which relates to private prison contractors; clarifying requirements for determining daily costs of inmates; and providing an effective date.
SB2131 - An Act relating to state employee compensation; providing for salary increases for certain state employees.
SB2126 - An Act relating to the Department of Corrections; making an appropriation; stating purpose; amending 57 O.S. 2011, Section 541, as amended by Section 251, Chapter 304, O.S.L. 2012 (57 O.S. Supp. 2013, Section 541), which relates to the Department of Corrections Industries
Revolving Fund; deleting spending restriction; adding requirement of Director’s approval; making appropriation nonfiscal; and declaring an emergency.