Inmate Treatment Programs
The Program Services Unit oversees the delivery of quality programs that address inmate needs in an effort to prepare inmates for reentry and ultimately reduce recidivism. The Program Services Unit coordinates delivery of education, vocational training, cognitive restructuring and substance abuse programming.
Educational opportunities are available at all levels of security and offer literacy for inmates who are assessed with an overall accomplishment below the sixth grade level; Adult Basic Education for those who indicate an overall accomplishment between the sixth and ninth grade levels; and General Educational Development to prepare inmates indicating an overall accomplishment at or above the ninth grade level with no high school diploma. A total of 1,525 GED certificates were obtained by inmates in FY2015.
Substance abuse treatment programs utilize a cognitive behavioral modality of delivery to address addiction and abuse. Treatment programs are from four to twelve months in duration depending on the individualized needs of the inmate. Participation data is collected and analyzed to ensure the effectiveness of treatment programming. Participants totaled 2,318 in treatment with 1,106 successfully completing in FY2015.
Cognitive Restructuring programs address criminal thought processes and are designed to instill values and promote positive changes in behavior. These programs are available at most facilities and offer participants the opportunity to scrutinize their behavior patterns through identifying thinking errors and triggers to criminal behavior.
Several forms of programming are offered to inmates at all facilities within the agency. The table below summarizes program participation.
FY2015 Program Participation
|Program ||Participation |
|Substance Abuse Treatment ||2,318 |
|Thinking for a Change ||1,809 |
|Literacy ||1,765 |
|Adult Basic Education ||2,060 |
|General Equivalency Diploma ||2,255 |
|CIMC Life Skills ||2,139 |
|Faith and Character Community ||302 |
Probation and Parole
Probation revocations accounted for 23.4% of FY2015 receptions. Of the inmates who were received on a probation revocation, 56.3% were received into prison without a new case and 43.7% were received with a new case. Some probation violators may have been probationers supervised by an agency other than the ODOC.
A 2008 Urban Institute Report on Inmate Reentry Health has documented the poor health status of inmates entering prisons as compared with the general population. Inmate populations are aging due to longer prison sentences. This circumstance is often made worse by inmate’s tendency for unhealthy lifestyles, coupled with a history of substance abuse or other chronic medical conditions.
The incarcerated inmate population 50 years and older in ODOC has grown from 85 in 1980 to over 5,455 in FY2015.
- ODOC health care expenditures demonstrate consistent growth, reflecting the national trend.
- Factors increasing the cost of inmate health care include: Increased inmate population, increased average age of inmates, market-driven increases in salaries and benefits of health care personnel, and increased medication costs of non-ODOC physician and hospital services.
Less tangible factors affecting costs include: Improved overall quality of care, compliance with community standards of care, and the evolution of medical technology and medication costs.
Inmate Population 50 Years of Age and Older
Data for 1980 and 1994 from Wheeler, et al., 1995. Data for 2010-present are generated using end-of-fiscal year data and only exclude inmates on escapee status.
|Year ||50 and Older |
|1980 ||85 |
|1994 ||879 |
|2010 ||4,036 |
|2011 ||4,154 |
|2012 ||4,392 |
|2013 ||4,705 |
|2014 ||5,090 |
|2015 ||5,455 |
The chart below illustrates ODOC health care expenditures have increased from $66,728,472 in FY2006 to over $84,762,858 in FY2015.
Inmate Health Care Expenditures
For FY2014 and FY2015 Inmate Health Care Expenditures includes ODOC housed inmates and contract beds.
|Fiscal Year ||Expenditure |
Inmates with mental health problems continue to be increasingly overrepresented in the ODOC populations compared to the community:
(No inmates were excluded from this analysis. Based on incarcerated population on June 30, 2015.)
|FY 2015 Prison Population ||Number ||Percentage |
|History or current symptoms of a mental illness: ||16,867 ||60% |
|Current symptoms of a mental illness: ||12,921 ||46% |
|Current serious developmental or cognitive disability: ||296 ||1% |
FY2006 through FY2015 Changes in Psychotropic Medication Distribution
|Fiscal Year ||Population on Psychotropics |
|2006 ||4,072 |
|2007 ||4,279 |
|2008 ||4,917 |
|2009 ||4,894 |
|2010 ||5,160 |
|2011 ||6,146 |
|2012 ||6,061 |
|2013 ||6,248 |
|2014 ||6,343 |
|2015 ||5,790 |
The tables below summarizes the FY2014 and FY2015 average monthly number of mental health services.
|Mental Health Services Activities ||FY2014 ||FY2015 |
|Inmates in Group Sessions ||851 ||890 |
|Number of Group Sessions ||176 ||167 |
|Number of Individual Therapy Sessions ||2,951 ||2,808 |
|Inmates Seen for Psychotropic Medication Management ||2,689 ||2,856 |
|Crisis Interventions ||1,200 ||1,152 |
|Staff Consultations ||936 ||1,260 |
The ODOC and the Oklahoma Department of Mental Health and Substance Abuse Services (ODMHSAS) collaborative Mental Health Reentry Program transitions incarcerated inmates with serious mental illness into appropriate community-based mental health services in the community. Reentry Intensive Care Coordination Teams (RICCTs) are under ODMHSAS contracts to be responsible for engaging with the inmate with serious mental illness prior to discharge and then working with them in the community until they are fully participating in the appropriate community-based mental health and substance abuse services.
|Number of Inmates Served Fiscal Year ||FY2014 ||FY2015 |
|Integrated Service Discharge Managers ||313 ||330 |
|Reentry Intensive Care Coordination Teams ||237 ||239 |
|Enhanced Integrated Co-Occurring Treatment Services ||276 ||283 |
An outcome analysis of the program that was performed by ODMHSAS showed continued positive results. Outcomes of inmates served during FY2015 were compared with a baseline group comprised of similar individuals.
Collaborative Mental Health Reentry Program (2014)
These outcomes are derived every three years.
|Outcome Measure ||Baseline** ||RICCT |
|Inpatient Hospitalizations ||8.7% ||0.9% |
|Outpatient Service Utilization ||55.1% ||78.5% |
|Rate of Engagement in Community Based Services ||11.7% ||64.3% |
|Inmates Engaged in Medicaid 90 Days Post Release ||14.5% ||42.1% |
|Inmates Returning to Prison within 36 Months ||42.3% ||24.6% |
**The baseline comparison group was comprised of similar individuals prior to program implementation (2006)
Oklahoma has consistently ranked first in the rate of female incarceration nationally, and projections for the female inmate population through FY2015 indicate that ranking will continue.
The steady, small increases in female inmate numbers reflect reception and release patterns that have stayed consistent in recent years.
The table below illustrates the increasing number of female inmates.
Female Inmate Trend
FY05-FY06 numbers come from the closest population analysis report to the end of the fiscal year. These numbers include all ODOC facilities, contract locations, and incarcerated inmates supervised by electronic monitoring, but exclude inmates that are temporarily on the OUT count status (e.g., hospital, court, jail). FY07-present generated from the Offender Management System (OMS) and include all ODOC facilities, contract locations, incarcerated inmates supervised by electronic monitoring, and inmates that are temporarily on the OUT count status.
|Fiscal Year||Females||Percent Increase|