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Agency-Wide FY2015 Annual Report

Oklahoma Department of Corrections

(pdf version for printing)

The Oklahoma Department of Corrections (ODOC) is an agency of the state of Oklahoma. ODOC is responsible for the administration of the state prison system. It has its headquarters in Oklahoma City.

The ODOC is governed by the seven-member Board of Corrections. All members are appointed by the Governor of Oklahoma, with the approval of the Oklahoma Senate, to serve six-year terms. Each of Oklahoma's five Congressional districts is represented by at least one member on the Board, with the remaining two members being appointed from the State at-large. The Board is responsible for setting the policies of the ODOC, approving the annual budget request and for appointing the director of Corrections. The Interim Director Joe M. Allbaugh, who serves at the pleasure of the Board, is the chief executive of the ODOC.

The ODOC was established in 1967.


Facility and Community Locations during FY2015

Institutions West

William S. Key Correctional Center 
Ft. Supply, Oklahoma

Bill Johnson Correctional Center
Alva, Oklahoma

James Crabtree Correctional Center
Helena, Oklahoma

John Lilley Correctional Center
Boley, Oklahoma

Lexington Correctional Center
Lexington Assessment and Reception Center
Lexington, Oklahoma

Oklahoma State Reformatory
Granite, Oklahoma

Institutions East

Howard McLeod Correctional Center 
Atoka, Oklahoma

Mack Alford Correctional Center 
Stringtown, Oklahoma

Jackie Brannon Correctional Center
McAlester, Oklahoma

Oklahoma State Penitentiary
McAlester, Oklahoma

Jim E. Hamilton Correctional Center
Hodgen, Oklahoma

Joseph Harp Correctional Center
Lexington, Oklahoma

Mabel Bassett Correctional Center
McLoud, Oklahoma

Jess Dunn Correctional Center
Taft, Oklahoma

Eddie Warrior Correctional Center
Taft, Oklahoma

Dick Conner Correctional Center
Hominy, Oklahoma

Northeast Oklahoma Correctional Center
Vinita, Oklahoma

Community Correction Centers

Enid Community Corrections Center
Enid, Oklahoma

Clara Waters Community Corrections Center
Oklahoma City, Oklahoma

Oklahoma City Community Corrections Center
Oklahoma City, Oklahoma

Kate Barnard Community Corrections Center
Oklahoma City, Oklahoma

Union City Community Corrections Center
Union City, Oklahoma

Lawton Community Corrections Center
Lawton, Oklahoma

Community Work Centers

Beaver Community Work Center
Beaver, Oklahoma

Sayre Community Work Center 
Sayre, Oklahoma

Mangum Community Work Center 
Mangum, Oklahoma

Hollis Community Work Center 
Hollis, Oklahoma

Elk City Community Work Center 
Elk City, Oklahoma

Hobart Community Work Center 
Hobart, Oklahoma

Altus Community Work Center 
Altus, Oklahoma

Frederick Community Work Center 
Frederick, Oklahoma 

Walters Community Work Center 
Walters, Oklahoma

Waurika Community Work Center
Waurika, Oklahoma

Healdton Community Work Center
Healdton, Oklahoma

Ardmore Community Work Center
Ardmore, Oklahoma

Madill Community Work Center
Madill, Oklahoma

Idabel Community Work Center 
Idabel, Oklahoma

Holdenville Community Work Center
Holdenville, Oklahoma 

Probation and Parole Districts

Jeffery M. McCoy Central District Office
Oklahoma City, Oklahoma

Northeast District Office
Muskogee, Oklahoma

Northwest District Office
Enid, Oklahoma

Southeast District Office
McAlester, Oklahoma

Southwest District Office
Lawton, Oklahoma

Tulsa County District Office
Tulsa, Oklahoma

Workforce

Correctional officers comprised the largest segment of the ODOC workforce as of June 30, 2015. Correctional officer staff were 80.14%  male with an average age of 38.6. Non-correctional officer staff were 59.65% female with an average age of 44.6.   

By race, the largest percentage of the agency’s workforce is Caucasian (76.01%), followed by Black (10.46%), American Indian (9.35%), Hispanic (2.96%) and Asian (1.22%) as of June 30, 2015.  

Overall, the total number of filled positions at the end of Fiscal Year 2015 (3,852) was 72 positions less than the total number of filled positions at year end Fiscal Year 2014 (3,924).

Department of Corrections Filled FTE History

Fiscal Year
Correctional Officers
Probation/
Parole Officers
Medical Staff
Others
2006
2,003
337
369
1,996
2007
2,007
340
366
1,990
2008
2,003
345
386
2,086
2009
1,932
344
372
2,046
2010
1,867
312
355
1,815
2011
1,761
281
374
1,638
2012
1,673
276
383
1,617
2013
1,596
281
376
1,644
2014
1,590
283
369
1,682
2015
1,654
285
383
1,530


The table below provides a history of fiscal year employee retirements. (FY2010 and FY2011 include Voluntary Buyouts.)

Fiscal Year
Number of
Employee Retirements
2007
92
2008
150
2009
155
2010
221
2011
255
2012
103
2013
145
2014
135
2015
178


The agency’s workforce is supplemented through the use of volunteers. These volunteers serve in many capacities and provide invaluable services to the Department.

Religious Services and Volunteer-Led Activities

Fiscal Year
Number of religious services
(average per month)
Number of volunteer hours provided for religious services
(average per month)
Number of volunteer activities, other than religious services
(average per month)
Number of volunteer hours provided for volunteer activities other than religious services
(average per month)
2014
1,835
8,504
639
2,582
2015
1,689
7,586
547
2,238

Oklahoma Inmate Population

Demographics as of June 30, 2015
Unless specifically indicated County Jail Back-up, Escapees, and Interstate Compact Out (LARC-IC) numbers are not included in any totals within this annual report.

Incarcerated Inmates

Of the state’s 28,871 incarcerated inmates (which excludes county jail backup), 54.5% are white and 45.5% are non-white.

The controlling or major offense of half of Oklahoma’s incarcerated inmates is a non-violent crime.

The average age of incarcerated inmates is 38.3.

Violent vs. Non-Violent by Controlling Offense 

Controlling Offense
Number of Offenders
Percent of Offenders
Violent
13,870
48.0%
Alcohol Related
693
2.4%
Other Non-Violent
6,720
23.3%
Drug Related
7,588
26.3%
Overall
28,871
100%


Incarcerated Inmates by Gender

Incarcerated Inmates 10.9% are female and 89.1% are male

Incarcerated Inmates by Race 

Race
Number of Offenders
Percent of Offenders
African American
7,552
26.2%
Caucasian
15,748
54.5%
Hispanic
2,233
7.7%
Native American
3,178
11.0%
Other
160
0.6%
Overall
28,871
100%

 


Probation Clients

The majority of the state’s 22,957 probation clients are primarily white and male.

The majority of probation clients committed non-violent crimes.

The average age of probation clients is 36.4.

Violent vs. Non-Violent by Controlling Offense 

Controlling Offense
Number of Probation Clients
Percent of Probation Clients
Violent
5,636
24.6%
Alcohol Related
1,587
6.9%
Other Non-Violent
7,782
33.9%
Drug Related
7,952
34.6%
Overall
22,957
100%


Probation Clients by Gender

Probation Clients by Gender is 24.2% female and 75.8% male

Probation Clients by Race

Race
Number of Probation Clients
Percent of Probation Clients
African American
4,301
18.7%
Caucasian
13,674
59.6%
Hispanic
1,825
8.0%
Native American
1,891
8.2%
Overall
22,957
100%

Parole Clients

The majority of the state’s 2,981 parole clients are primarily white and male.

The majority of parole clients committed non-violent crimes.

The average age of parole clients is 45.5.

Violent vs. Non-Violent by Controlling Offense

Controlling Offense
Number of Parole Clients
Percent of Parole Clients
Violent
575
19.3%
Alcohol Related
42
1.4%
Other Non-Violent
572
19.2%
Drug Related
1,792
60.1%
Overall
2,981
100%


Parole Clients by Gender

Parole clients by gender is females 14.3% and males 85.7%








Parole Clients by Race

Race
Number of Parole Clients
Percent of Parole Clients
African American
950
31.8%
Caucasian
1,516
50.8%
Hispanic
261
8.8%
Native American
169
5.7%
Other
85
2.9%
Overall
2,981
100%


Receptions and Releases, Fiscal Year 2006 – Fiscal Year 2015

The following tables show the 10 year trend of inmate receptions and releases. Receptions are convicted felons taken into custody of the ODOC.

Prison Reception for a Controlling Violent vs. Non-Violent Crime

Fiscal Year
Violent
Non-Violent
Overall
2006
2,042
6,383
8,425
2007
2,260
6,644
8,904
2008
2,278
6,486
8,764
2009
2,334
6,373
8,707
2010
2,607
6,769
9,376
2011
2,342
6,014
8,356
2012
2,355
6,259
8,614
2013
2,277
6,132
8,409
2014
3,064
7,656
10,720
2015
2,728
7,252
9,980


Inmate Population: Incarcerated, Receptions and Releases

Fiscal Year
Population
Receptions
Releases
2006
23,550
8,425
7,925
2007
24,198
8,904
8,097
2008
24,433
8,764
8,488
2009
24,337
8,707
8,687
2010
24,870
9,376
8,550
2011
25,458
8,356
8,740
2012
24,526
8,614
8,125
2013
25,214
8,409
7,641
2014
28,161
10,720
8,958
2015
28,871
9,980
8,929

Inmate Prison Releases by Release Type

Fiscal Year
Paroled
Probation
Street
Overall
2006
1,106
3,253
3,566
7,925
2007
1,105
3,160
3,832
8,097
2008
1,257
3,113
4,118
8,488
2009
1,117
3,338
4,232
8,687
2010
760
3,440
4,350
8,550
2011
636
3,489
4,615
8,740
2012
497
3,371
4,257
8,125
2013
576
3,040
4,025
7,641
2014
1,041
3,449
4,468
8,958
2015
473
4,725
3,731
8,929


The table below illustrates yearly inmate incarceration growth trends since July 2005. It does not include inmates sentenced to probation or other non-incarceration sentences.

Yearly Inmate Growth Trends
*Total Sentenced Inmates includes ODOC Facilities, Contract Beds, GPS/EMP/PPCS.

Fiscal Year
Total Sentenced Inmates*
ODOC Facilities
Contract Beds
GPS/
EMP/
PPCS
County Jail Backups
Escapees
Interstate Compact Out
2006
23,550
17,096
6,454
826
1,536


2007
24,198
17,697
6,501
825
1,181


2008
24,433
17,903
6,530
864
1,323


2009
24,337
18,248
6,089
863
1,542


2010
24,870
18,336
6,534
1,065
1,348


2011
24,351
18,027
6,324
1,107
1,323


2012
24,526
18,106
6,420
1,343
1,561


2013
25,214
17,902
7,312
1,339
1,646


2014
28,161
19,198
7,676
1,287
163


2015
28,871
20,041
7,986
844
332
110
87


Inmates sentenced to Life Without Parole represent 3% of the total inmate population.

Life Without Parole offenders are 6.4% non-violent and 93.6% violent

Chart showing that offenders sentenced to Life are 96.2% violent and 3.8% non-violent.

Charts showing offenders serving over 50 years for controlling offense are 89.1% violent and 10.9% non-violent.

County Jail Backup

Inmates sentenced by the court to the ODOC are housed in county jails until reception into ODOC custody.

Financial responsibility for inmate housing costs shifts from the county to the ODOC upon court sentencing.

The daily charge to ODOC by the counties for inmates housed in county jails awaiting transfer to ODOC is set by statute and is currently set at $27 per day.

County Jail Backup

Fiscal Year
Number of Offenders
2006
1,536
2007
1,181
2008
1,323
2009
1,542
2010
1,348
2011
1,323
2012
1,561
2013
1,646
2014
163
2015
332


Contract Bed Space

Oklahoma began contracting for private prison bed space in April 1996.

Currently three private facilities in this state have contracts to provide maximum and medium security beds to the ODOC. The ODOC has contracts with 10 halfway houses for residential services.

The increased use of contract prison beds to accommodate net inmate growth has resulted in expenditure growth beyond the agency’s appropriated resources. To meet this cost growth, numerous facility infrastructure, technology, vehicle replacements, programmatic and staffing needs have been chronically deferred, reduced in scope or reallocated.

Private Prison Expenditures  

Fiscal Year
Expenditures
2006

$72,673,043

2007
$77,082,338
2008
$78,246,556
2009
$77,715,501
2010
$74,693,152
2011
$72,310,996
2012
$72,889,227
2013
$79,285,938
2014
$92,211,827
2015
$92,675,632


Halfway House Expenditures
Expenditures reflect actual amounts billed and paid to the vendors.

Fiscal Year
Expenditures
2006
$14,789,952
2007
$15,604,734
2008
$17,486,676
2009
$17,138,799
2010
$16,465,865
2011
$16,733,511
2012
$14,941,393
2013
$15,574,689
2014
$15,459,472
2015
$18,298,780


Inmate Treatment Programs

The Program Services Unit oversees the delivery of quality programs that address inmate needs in an effort to prepare inmates for reentry and ultimately reduce recidivism. The Program Services Unit coordinates delivery of education, vocational training, cognitive restructuring and substance abuse programming.

Educational opportunities are available at all levels of security and offer literacy for inmates who are assessed with an overall accomplishment below the sixth grade level; Adult Basic Education for those who indicate an overall accomplishment between the sixth and ninth grade levels; and General Educational Development to prepare inmates indicating an overall accomplishment at or above the ninth grade level with no high school diploma. A total of 1,525 GED certificates were obtained by inmates in FY2015.

Substance abuse treatment programs utilize a cognitive behavioral modality of delivery to address addiction and abuse. Treatment programs are from four to twelve months in duration depending on the individualized needs of the inmate. Participation data is collected and analyzed to ensure the effectiveness of treatment programming. Participants totaled 2,318 in treatment with 1,106 successfully completing in FY2015.

Cognitive Restructuring programs address criminal thought processes and are designed to instill values and promote positive changes in behavior. These programs are available at most facilities and offer participants the opportunity to scrutinize their behavior patterns through identifying thinking errors and triggers to criminal behavior.

Several forms of programming are offered to inmates at all facilities within the agency. The table below summarizes program participation.

FY2015 Program Participation

Program
Participation
Substance Abuse Treatment
2,318
Thinking for a Change
1,809
Literacy
1,765
Adult Basic Education
2,060
General Equivalency Diploma
2,255
CIMC Life Skills
2,139
Faith and Character Community
302


Probation and Parole

Probation revocations accounted for 23.4% of FY2015 receptions. Of the inmates who were received on a probation revocation, 56.3% were received into prison without a new case and 43.7% were received with a new case. Some probation violators may have been probationers supervised by an agency other than the ODOC.

Specific Populations

Medical

A 2008 Urban Institute Report on Inmate Reentry Health has documented the poor health status of inmates entering prisons as compared with the general population. Inmate populations are aging due to longer prison sentences. This circumstance is often made worse by inmate’s tendency for unhealthy lifestyles, coupled with a history of substance abuse or other chronic medical conditions.

The incarcerated inmate population 50 years and older in ODOC has grown from 85 in 1980 to over 5,455 in FY2015.

  • ODOC health care expenditures demonstrate consistent growth, reflecting the national trend.
  • Factors increasing the cost of inmate health care include: Increased inmate population, increased average age of inmates, market-driven increases in salaries and benefits of health care personnel, and increased medication costs of non-ODOC physician and hospital services.

Less tangible factors affecting costs include: Improved overall quality of care, compliance with community standards of care, and the evolution of medical technology and medication costs.

Inmate Population 50 Years of Age and Older
Data for 1980 and 1994 from Wheeler, et al., 1995. Data for 2010-present are generated using end-of-fiscal year data and only exclude inmates on escapee status.

Year
50 and Older
1980
85
1994
879
2010
4,036
2011
4,154
2012
4,392
2013
4,705
2014
5,090
2015
5,455

The chart below illustrates ODOC health care expenditures have increased from $66,728,472 in FY2006 to over $84,762,858 in FY2015.

Inmate Health Care Expenditures
For FY2014 and FY2015 Inmate Health Care Expenditures includes ODOC housed inmates and contract beds.

Fiscal Year
Expenditure
2006

66,728,472

2007

69,127,448

2008

70,697,766

2009

65,891,931

2010

63,113,309

2011

62,692,267

2012

65,090,992

2013

68,718,612

2014

84,411,263

2015

84,762,858

Mental Health

Inmates with mental health problems continue to be increasingly overrepresented in the ODOC populations compared to the community:
(No inmates were excluded from this analysis. Based on incarcerated population on June 30, 2015.)

FY 2015 Prison Population
Number
Percentage
History or current symptoms of a mental illness:
16,867
60%
Current symptoms of a mental illness:
12,921
46%
Current serious developmental or cognitive disability:
296
1%


FY2006 through FY2015 Changes in Psychotropic Medication Distribution

Fiscal Year
Population on Psychotropics
2006
4,072
2007
4,279
2008
4,917
2009
4,894
2010
5,160
2011
6,146
2012
6,061
2013
6,248
2014
6,343
2015
5,790



The tables below summarizes the FY2014 and FY2015 average monthly number of mental health services.

Mental Health Services Activities
FY2014
FY2015
Inmates in Group Sessions
851
890
Number of Group Sessions
176
167
Number of Individual Therapy Sessions
2,951
2,808
Inmates Seen for Psychotropic Medication Management
2,689
2,856
Crisis Interventions
1,200
1,152
Staff Consultations
936
1,260



The ODOC and the Oklahoma Department of Mental Health and Substance Abuse Services (ODMHSAS) collaborative Mental Health Reentry Program transitions incarcerated inmates with serious mental illness into appropriate community-based mental health services in the community. Reentry Intensive Care Coordination Teams (RICCTs) are under ODMHSAS contracts to be responsible for engaging with the inmate with serious mental illness prior to discharge and then working with them in the community until they are fully participating in the appropriate community-based mental health and substance abuse services.

Number of Inmates Served Fiscal Year
FY2014
FY2015
Integrated Service Discharge Managers
313
330
Reentry Intensive Care Coordination Teams
237
239
Enhanced Integrated Co-Occurring Treatment Services
276
283


An outcome analysis of the program that was performed by ODMHSAS showed continued positive results. Outcomes of inmates served during FY2015 were compared with a baseline group comprised of similar individuals.

Collaborative Mental Health Reentry Program (2014) These outcomes are derived every three years.

Outcome Measure
Baseline**
RICCT
Inpatient Hospitalizations
8.7%
0.9%
Outpatient Service Utilization
55.1%
78.5%
Rate of Engagement in Community Based Services
11.7%
64.3%
Inmates Engaged in Medicaid 90 Days Post Release
14.5%
42.1%
Inmates Returning to Prison within 36 Months
42.3%
24.6%

**The baseline comparison group was comprised of similar individuals prior to program implementation (2006)

Female Inmates

Oklahoma has consistently ranked first in the rate of female incarceration nationally, and projections for the female inmate population through FY2015 indicate that ranking will continue.

The steady, small increases in female inmate numbers reflect reception and release patterns that have stayed consistent in recent years.

The table below illustrates the increasing number of female inmates.

Female Inmate Trend
FY05-FY06 numbers come from the closest population analysis report to the end of the fiscal year. These numbers include all ODOC facilities, contract locations, and incarcerated inmates supervised by electronic monitoring, but exclude inmates that are temporarily on the OUT count status (e.g., hospital, court, jail). FY07-present generated from the Offender Management System (OMS) and include all ODOC facilities, contract locations, incarcerated inmates supervised by electronic monitoring, and inmates that are temporarily on the OUT count status.

Fiscal Year
Females
Percent Increase
2006
2,458
-0.7%
2007
2,566
4.4%
2008
2,690
4.8%
2009
2,649
-1.5%
2010
2,760
4.2%
2011
2,606
-5.6%
2012
2,633
1.0%
2013
2,682
1.9%
2014
2,961
10.4%
2015
3,134
5.8%

National Funding and Expenditure Trends

In fiscal 2013, corrections spending represented 3.2% of total state spending and 6.9% of general fund spending. General fund dollars are the primary source for state corrections and account for $47.4 billion, or 88.9% of all fiscal 2013 state corrections spending. State funds (general funds and other state funds combined, but excluding bonds) accounted for 97.7% of total state corrections spending in fiscal 2013. Federal funds accounted for 1.4% and bonds accounted for 1.0%. Federal funds for corrections declined by 25.5% in fiscal year 2013, as American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) funds expired.

State spending on corrections in fiscal 2014 is estimated to total $55.5 billion, a 4.0% increase from fiscal year 2013. State funds are estimated to increase by 4.0% while federal funds are estimated to increase by 4.3%. The slight increase in the overall growth rate is partly due to recent efforts states have taken to control corrections spending. State spending for corrections totaled $53.3 billion in fiscal 2013, compared to $53.1 billion in fiscal 2012, a 0.5% increase. Over the past several years, states have begun targeting criminal justice reforms to address the cost drivers of corrections expenditures.

The same report also documented expenditures for Oklahoma in fiscal 2013. Oklahoma corrections expenditures were 2.6% of total state spending and 6.6% of total state general fund spending. According to the report, the state’s corrections expenditures totaled $563 million in fiscal 2013.
The state general fund is the dominant source of the state’s corrections spending for fiscal 2013, providing 81.5%, of total monies spent in corrections. This percentage is considerably lower than the national average of general fund support reported for the same year 88.9%.

Fiscal 2013 state general fund and other state funds made up 99.6% of total corrections spending. This percentage for Oklahoma was higher than the national average of 97.6%.

In contrast, fiscal 2013 federal funds accounted for only 0.4% of the total monies spent in corrections. This level of federal funds was below the national average 1.4% reported for the same fiscal year. (National Association of State Budget Officers, State Expenditure Report (Fiscal 2012-2014)

Oklahoma’s high costs associated with a high rate of per capita incarceration are reflected in the percentage of general revenue fund expenditures.

Although Oklahoma corrections takes a larger share of general revenue funds, the state has one of the lowest incarceration per diem rates, compared to surrounding states.

Corrections as Percentage of Total General Fund Expenditures, FY2014
Arkansas - 8.2%
Colorado - 8.0%
Missouri - 7.2%
Oklahoma - 6.7%
Texas - 6.6%
Kansas - 5.8%
New Mexico - 4.6%
Source: National Association of State Budget Officers: State Expenditure Report (Fiscal Year 2012-2014 Data)

Appropriations
FY2014
FY2015
Appropriation
$463,731,068
$470,900,943
% Change prior year
-
-1.2%
Supplemental
$13,000,000
-
Total State Appropriation
Comprehensive Annual Financial Report Fiscal Year Ended June 30, 2015, page 12
$7,083,000,000
$7,107,000,000


The following provides a breakdown of FY2015 actual expenditures by expenditure type for the ODOC.

FY2015 Actual Expenditures by Expenditure Type

Salaries and Benefits
$255,388,611
Private Prison and Contracts
$150,336,206
Utilities/Admin.
$15,097,821
Maintenance Repairs and Building Construction
$7,118,054
Food
$17,761,702
Equipment
$1,936,810
Debt Service
$5,317,618
Other
Over 1 Million: Merchandise for Resale (OCI & Agri-Services); Outside Medical Care; Inmate Pay; Rent Expense; Production, Safety & Security; Shop Expense; General Operating Expenses
Under 1 Million: Travel Agency Direct Payments; Incentive Payments; Travel reimbursements; Lease Purchasing; Library Equipment-Resources; Land; Livestock & Poultry; Employee reimbursements (Non-Travel); Payments to Local Government; Reimbursement

$62,164,413
Total
$515,121,235


FY2015 Legislative Summary

The 2015 legislative session adjourned on May 22nd, one week earlier than what is required by the Oklahoma Constitution. The Department of Corrections (DOC) had three request bills that we guided through the process and all were signed by the Governor.

The biggest topic of discussion during session was the over $600 million gap in the state budget. This set DOC up for a tense session where we focused on educating lawmakers on the financial needs of the Department and the cost saving measures we’ve already taken in order to be more responsible with taxpayer dollars. As a result, DOC was granted a $14 million dollar increase.

DOC Request Bills:

Senate Bill 412
SB412 addressed Oklahoma’s need to create a single list of violent crimes in statute. Prior to this bill there were as many as 5 areas of statute that addressed what constitutes a violent crime making it difficult for judges, district attorneys and DOC staff.

House Bill 1630
HB1630 addressed the process of receiving inmates from county jails. It gives county jails 3 business days to transmit sentencing documents and gives them more flexibility on how they notify the Department of Corrections by authorizing notice through sentencing documents other than the judgment and sentence.

Senate Bill 54
SB54 allows employees with the Inspector General and Probation and Parole divisions to keep their firearms when they retire.